Culture of Karachi

This is the story of karachi’s culture; which has nothing to do with its 1 History, 2 Heritage 3 Language 4 Religion 5 Literature 6 Performing arts 7 Shopping 8 Education 9 Sports and recreation 10 Cuisine 10.1 Its Restaurants 11 Festivals 12 Popular media 12 National dress, 14 Ethnic communities or their and on going civilwars, poverty, floords, hunger and rest of the structure collapse!

It has everything to do with the rich the famous the have it all and the out of control!! A colonial mixed with the multiethnic nouveau-riche cum gulf money meddled with the feudal-bureaucratic disguised a underground globalised culture of one of the most complex cities of the world, Karachi!!

Originally published in TNS in 1990s

She could be any doting parent’s teen princess, except 16-year-old Zahra is hooked on to a variety of drugs, and is sexually active, making her much sought after by the boys in her class. Rearranging her school kameez to show me the butterfly tattooed on her back, she asks, “It’s pretty, isn’t it? I had it done abroad when I was on holiday last summer. Don’t tell anyone, but I also had one of my nipples pierced.”

These, however, are not the only distinguishing marks on her body. According to friends, Zahra was in one of her drug-induced stupors when she fell from her second floor balcony, irreparably damaging her nose. When I ask her about it, she shrugs nonchalantly and tells me she has been sent to rehab three times. However, she steadfastly refuses to accept that she may have a problem: “I’m a teenager, we’re supposed to be out of control sometimes,” she says. “Besides, my parents don’t really care what I do, as long as I don’t embarrass them.”

Sixteen-year-old Asif has a similar history. Addicted to cocaine when he was 12, Asif has twice almost died of a drug overdose, once even breaking his doctor’s nose in a drug-induced rage while the latter was attempting to pump Asif’s stomach. Unable to cope with their out-of-control son, Asif’s parents decided to enroll him in a boarding school specialising in problem children in the heart of the Punjab. Two years and 11 yellow disciplinary cards later, he was asked to leave, despite being the smartest child in his class. “I was very precocious,” he says, “but a complete wild child.”

Asif’s fast and furious lifestyle had a devastating effect on his family. Already plagued by financial difficulties, his parents decided to move to Karachi, and separated soon after. Severely depressed, Asif took to binge-eating, putting on 100 pounds, and was subsequently prescribed Prozac at the age of 14. “I was very depressed, and angry about my utter helplessness,” he says. “It wasn’t easy witnessing my mother suffering a nervous breakdown, and my father drinking himself almost to death. I realised that I was on a fast track to destruction only when I was expelled from my fourth school.”

Asif decided to make a go of his life. His parents have since reconciled and he is now clean of hard drugs. But despite his traumatic substance abuse, he extolls the virtues of what he calls “new experiences.” He also continues to drink with his friends, and speaks highly about party drugs. Claiming to have been obsessed with sex ever since he found his father’s Playboy magazines at the age of eight, he tells me he lost his virginity just two days shy of his thirteenth birthday. He also continues to regard casual sex as acceptable.

Cases like Zahra’s and Asif’s are not unusual. A large number of new generation Pakistanis have similar tales to tell, far removed from those of wholesome shows like The Wonder Years. Almost 90 per cent of the boys I speak to, as young as 10 years old, admit to having experimented with drugs and drink, if not sex, at some point in their lives. Approximately four in 10 indulge themselves regularly, either alone at home, with a group of their friends, or at parties. And depending on who one speaks to, it is estimated that approximately 30-50 per cent of the girls attending the city’s top private schools, have experienced a drug-induced high – most commonly, on dope.

While most school authorities I approach are hesitant to discuss the subject, others have started to recognise drug abuse as a serious problem. Raheel Khan, co-principal of L’ecole, is one of them. She admits that there is a substantial increase in problem children today, and that substance use among teenagers is on the increase. “Two of our children were constantly on a drug-induced high at school,” she says. “A 16-year-old girl called Sana was a particularly sad case. She was addicted to multiple substances. Her parents had split before she was born – the mother had remarried and her father is currently on his fourth wife.”

Behavioural problems are a natural consequence. Khan blames the parents. “Shockingly, in Sana’s case, her own mother encouraged her dysfunctional attitude,” she says. “When even their own mothers have no time for them, kids become very independent. They grow wildly and without any moral, academic or spiritual direction.”

Even those parents who are actively involved in their children’s lives, find themselves boxed in a corner when trying to set clearly defined limits. “Increasingly, more and more kids are being allowed to stay out late at parties or raves, often until the wee hours of the morning,” says one such parent. “Karachi Grammar School and American School parties used to be infamous for heavy-duty fun, but these days kids from all the elite schools – and dozens have sprung up in the last decade – attend the same parties which are notable for their excesses.” And unwilling to seem unreasonable, or out of desperation to ensure their kids ‘fit in,’ a substantial number of parents have taken to revising curfew times until later and later. “We don’t want our children to be social outcasts,” says one parent. “The world is becoming a very competitive place and given that kids today face a tremendous amount of pressure, one has to allow them to let their hair down on occasion.”

Allowing them to “let their hair down,” however, can be as risky as a game of Russian roulette. “Parties often serve as a safe house for those eager to experience a drug-induced high, especially for young girls. As dealers can’t sell drugs to girls at their homes, many girls indulge themselves at all-night raves or even at casual get togethers. “I know a lot of girls who ask for booze and dope,” says Ali, a former leader of an elite youth gang. “A lot of my friends encourage their girlfriends to do drugs,” he adds, “especially if they plan on getting physical. Sex on drugs is fantastic.”

He continues, “Friends of mine wanted me to encourage a girl to take cocaine so that all three of us could have fun with her. I liked the girl, so I would not have any part of this scheme. I tried to protect her and I tried to warn her. But she was a willing victim. Eventually I got rid of the friends and the girl.”

Getting physical meanwhile, is now increasingly par for the course. Says a girl from a Defence-based English-medium school with branches across the country, “More and more teenage couples are going all the way. There have been a few instances when girls have had to have abortions, which are paid for by their boyfriends. I even know of a girl who went on a six-month vacation abroad, had her baby, gave it up for adoption, and returned to school for her finals.”

According to an independent estimate, almost five out of 10 school-children now come from broken homes. “Divorces are definitely on the increase,” says Khan. “I would say 25-30 per cent of the students are those of divorced parents, but if you combine them with those who are separated, the number of troubled homes in the elite class can be as high as 40-50 per cent.”

As almost six of the 15 kids I have spoken to are the progeny of divorced or separated parents, this seems like a reasonable statistic. Kamran’s parents, for example, have been separated for the last four years. Fifteen-year-old Mozzy’s parents split when he was 10. Both his English mother and Pakistani father are now remarried – his father for the third time. Mozzy now lives with his grandparents. Ameena is 16. Her parents are also divorced and she lives with her mother. “I was my parents’ love child,” she says wistfully. Then there is Faiz, whose British mother and Baloch wadera father divorced just six months after his birth.

Slaves to social pleasures or the demands of high-profile careers, many parents resort to throwing obscene amounts of money at their kids in place of quality time. Faiz is one such example. He is unique among his friends, as he has enjoyed almost complete independence ever since he turned 13. Subsequent to his English mother’s remarriage, his father, who spared no expense in his son’s upbringing, installed Faiz in a three-bedroom flat in London’s Knightsbridge. Faiz lived there, on his own, until his eighteenth birthday. When news of his son working in one of London’s trendy gay bars trickled back home, his father insisted Faiz return to Pakistan, where he was enrolled at a posh school and told of his impending nuptials with a cousin. Needless to say, Faiz’s life was thrown into a spin. “I have all the luxuries that money can buy,” he says, “but no sense of belonging. I am gay, and though Pakistani by birth, that has not been my life experience. Now I have to adapt to life in a country that is homophobic and strange.”

In a classic attempt at keeping up with the Jones’, parents often resort to buying inappropriate gifts for their offspring in the form of cars, designer gear – even guns. “We all want to provide our children with the best that money can buy,” says a psychologist at Aga Khan University. “However, sometimes this desire takes on an unhealthy dimension, especially among the nouveau riche, who give their children all sorts of inappropriate items just to massage their own egos.” Whereas in the west a child learns from an early age to earn his own way, parents from elite backgrounds in Pakistan feel it is shameful to deny their children luxuries, thus encouraging a culture where life becomes little more than a collection of status symbols. With substantial funds at their disposal, kids decked in international designer wear – Nike, Gucci, Burberry, Versace, even Armani – and several hundred dollars worth of accessories, are now common sights in Karachi, and almost indistinguishable from kids in any big cosmopolitan city from New York to London to Tokyo. “Boys as young as 14 drive their own jeeps, and are allowed to stay out as late as they like,” says a school teacher. “Unhampered by any parental restrictions, they cruise the city streets like little princes, and pastimes like egging and ‘charpai palti’ are common.”

Almost all of Karachi’s top schools now contain organised gangs (see Gangs of ‘New’ Karachi). And most children in the city’s elite schools can be broken down into two distinct groups – the mailas, as the conservative kids from Urdu-medium backgrounds are dubbed, and the English-medium ‘burgers.’

Ameena and her boyfriend Ali are a good example. Although Ameena considers herself part of the burger elite, boasting a liberal business-class lineage, her boyfriend, a former leader of an elite street gang, is not. “The two groups don’t mix very well,” she says. “In fact, they have a healthy disregard for one another.” She points to a set of tables in the student cafeteria set apart from the rest. “That’s where the mailas sit. They look down upon our liberal lifestyle. Some of them may be jealous that we’re allowed to go out to parties late at night, and that we are comfortable mixing with the opposite sex. For the most part its the fact that the maila kids, believe our outlook is just too westernised.”

Generation Y kids, are now, more than ever, confused about the choice between east and west. Cut off from meaningful relationships with their parents, and indoctrinated on a heady mix of western liberalism and a rapidly emerging Pakistani pop-culture, they exist in their own little bubble, divorced from the different social stratas around them. Often, their only mentors are their own peers and the generation above them. And life for them, is a party that simply never stops.

“We’re gonna party, like it’s your birthday” – 50-cent resonates over the calm waters lapping the shore of the French beach. The scene is an exclusive party for 500 of the country’s 20-30 something elite, hosted by a prominent male fashion designer. All the who’s who are in attendance. Scores of youngsters are gyrating intimately on the carefully constructed wooden dance floor, but few really know whom they are boogying with. Couples, flying high, are sprawled on the beach in various grades of dress or undress, yet others are making out with multiple partners. And if half of them look as if they’re tripping, they probably are.

Rave parties are sweeping Karachi like a tidal wave. For those socially unconscious for the better part of this millennium, a rave party, more often just called a rave, or free party, is an all-night dance event where rave music – psychedelic dance tunes, most notably acid house and techno – which emerged in the clubs, warehouses and free-parties in London, is played, mostly by a DJ. Although the first rave involved the baby boomers at Woodstock in 1969, it is their children – the American and British generation x-ers – raised on a heady mix of libertarian values such as free love, who became the first mainstream ravers. As such these parties are synoymous with experimenting with psychedelic drugs, most commonly ecstasy (‘E’) or the more lethal LSD – drugs of choice even in the land of the pure.

As secrecy is of paramount importance, most raves are held in places like warehouses and outdoor locations. The dance floor is the nucleus of the party, which ravers flock to, on various degrees of substance-induced highs. Says 25-year-old Amir, “Initially, the feeling ‘E’ induces is more a sense of universal love than sex. You just want to hug everyone. You can literally fall in love with a lamp post!”

As the effects of the drug get more pronounced, however, sex is a natural consequence. “Sex is great on ‘E,'” he says, “as the body becomes extremely sentised to outside stimulus.” It is not unusual to find men in various forms of undress sponging each other off with hot water in pursuit of blissful sensation. Men may make out with men, and women with women.

After a while, when ‘E’ starts to wear off, party-goers take refuge in dark rooms, where they can come down. This is followed by a light show. Often ravers wake up to find themselves sprawled out in private gardens, lounges or in bedrooms, next to complete strangers. Nights may just mesh into one wild orgy of dance, decadence and debauchery. In the words of an avid socialite ‘a pre-party of the bigger pre leads to the main event, which goes on to the post-party, which ends with an after-hours and post-party mortem in the morning.’

Be it at parties or schools, after the witching hour or at noon, on the beach in Clifton or the sleepy suburbia of Islamabad’s F7, life for the bold and beautiful Pakistani youth is an endless joyride. And drug abuse often goes hand in hand. Many, like popular Indus TV VJ, Faizan Haq, rave about it: “I am the sort of person who, when I pop Ecstasy, will ask my mother to try it, just once!” Waking up on a chemically induced brighter day, Tara – another media executive – is on the pill, not birth control – but Prozac. “It is a great way to feel as high as the Habib Bank Plaza,” she says. “Popping pills is almost as acceptable as taking vitamins. Prescription drugs are commonly mixed with alcohol if one cannot afford the harder drugs.” These include Melatonin (a hormone-based cure for jet lag), Zoloft (an anti-depressant) or valium.

However, with the prices of designer drugs crashing, these are becoming less popular. Whereas one tablet of ‘E’ could cost upto 4000 rupees a few years ago, it is now available for as little as 600 rupees. “It’s easy to smuggle these drugs into Pakistan,” says a dealer, “even college boys know it’s a quick way to make cash. Who will be any wiser if anyone flying home from university in America or Europe substitutes Ecstasy for calcium tablets?” Tara admits to rolling a joint of hash almost every evening but says some of her friends smoke up to ten times the same amount. “I don’t do Cocaine, as my nose started to bleed the one time I tried it,” she says. “However, my husband is an occasional user and would probably indulge more frequently were it not for the fact that it is just too expensive.”

But are these exploits of the footloose and fanciful the face of a more liberal Pakistan, or simply a manifestation of extreme disillusionment and despair?

“I don’t mean to be an angst-ridden turncoat but there has got to be more,” writes Kamiar Rokni, Man Friday, elite designer of his own label, Karma, and avid socialite, in his weekly column in The Friday Times. “Tell me there’s more to life than glamour, glitz, PYTs and parties. The thought of getting stuck in this rut is beginning to scare me. I look around and see people 20 years older doing the same thing. With a chill down my spine, I feel like I’ve stepped into a horror film: Long night of the undead socialities. Maybe we’re just genetically decadent. Or are we just shallow?” he questions.

Mir Ibrahim Rahman, the 20-something CEO of popular news channel GEO, offers this simple explanation. “After 9/11 there has been a considerable level of ‘brain influx’ as opposed to the brain drain we Pakistan faced for the past two decades. CAPs (Confused Americanised Pakistanis) may have taken over most of the more promising job opportunities, but they are extremely dissatisfied with what they have, compared to what they left behind. The ones who did not go abroad think wistfully of what they could achieve if they were in the west. In both cases, they are not happy here. Disillusioned, and struggling to create an environment combining the best of both worlds, they chose to import the obvious: the raves, the fashion, and the parties. Ironically, these were elements they almost ignored in the west.”

The easy scapegoats in this looming social crisis are westernisation and cable TV. With the mushrooming of independent cable channels and the ubiquitous internet, Pakistani society has opened up to the world. However, the increased exposure to the western values of individualism and freedom has not been accompanied by an understanding of responsibilities that come along with that freedom. Judging by the lifestyles of today’s generation x-ers, the slippery slope of escapism, blind materialism and decadent indulgence is the name of the game. Unlike the denizens from the middle class, who are becoming increasingly media-savvy, those from the upper echelons seem uncaring about the real world, as long as they are updated on the fashion headlines to be discussed over a Starbucks latte at one of the latest trendy dining haunts, Evolution.

While psychiatrists such as Dr Musa believe that the cliché that the media has played a role in shaping society does ring true, Geo’s Rahman disagrees. “Like all forms of education and entertainment, what is being absorbed, depends on the user and the student,” he says. “There is a lot out there which is good for the mind, soul and body. But TV should never really be taken too seriously, the medium is not the message. The idiot box becomes just that when we start giving it too much credit.”

The problems inherent in the hedonistic, often narcissistic, lifestyle of the average gen x-er run deeper than the movies regurgitated ad nauseam on TV. “Everybody is affected in their own way by the cultural *******isation of today,” says Faizan Haq. “Pakistanis as a whole generally suffer from a lack of identity. The new culture in our country is learning your MTV before your ABC. You learn how to dress like a heavy metal rocker before learning the guitar. So you could say we are upstarts in that respect.”

Take Faiz’s elder sister Saima, a young woman in her late-twenties, for instance. She is wearing a form-fitting white, viscose shirt, probably from Labels, a tight black pair of Levi 501s, and the latest pair of Samia Shahzada shoes costing 2000 rupees. Designer sunglasses are perched atop her dyed blond hair, which show brown roots. The strap of an alligator skin Gucci handbag stretches across her body. She walks out of Smart De Spa, deactivates her car alarm, and slips into the driver’s seat of her BMW. Clutching a crisp paper shopping bag from Agha’s, she quickly flips through her reading purchases: The Friday Times, The Sunday and Marie Claire. She epitomises the lifestyle of Pakistan’s generation x-ers, who form the face of the new liberal Pakistan. Trained from birth to be pathologically unconcerned about anybody except themselves, theirs is an existence captivated by labels and appearances. And it is the choice of the new generation. As the catchy Pepsi jingle goes, yehi hai right choice baby!

Times have changed and in an increasingly superficial society, working at physical perfection is considered de riguer for men and women who want to go places. As more and more yuppy husbands hanker after the luxurious lifestyles as viewed on pirated western DVDs and TV, their eager-to-please wives (sometimes just eager to please themselves) are party-ready at any given moment. One regular at a local salon claims that she gets her make-up done before her husband wakes up, as she has to look her best for him – not to mention like her husband’s favourite actress, Sarah Michelle Geller – at all times. And it is not just the women who feel the need to be ‘up there’ with the best of them. “Beautification? It is a part of my life,” exclaims a famous male model. Judging by the numerous unisex salons in Karachi alongside those catering to grooming for men, he’s among a cast of millions.

Encouraged by the new generation’s economic buoyancy – and profligacy -today’s entrepreneurs have realised that gen x is the key to future industry, which cannot continue to ignore the demand pull of such a growing segment of the population. Exploiting this prêt-a-porter opportunity, business approaches have now shifted to luring and keeping the young.

Take Jalal Salahuddin and Omar Satti, for instance. The son of Lahore’s host with the most Yusuf Salahuddin, a scion of generations of landed gentry, Jalal gave up investment banking to start up an event-management company, catering to among others, yuppies looking for a good time, demanding the event of the season, but lacking the inclination – or the wherewithal – to organise it. “People are now awakening from their slumber,” he says “and want to be entertained. That’s where we come in.”

Charity balls now reign supreme on Pakistan’s social circuit. For the die-hard socialites among Karachi’s elite, decked in diamonds and marinating in Dunhill, attendance at flagship events such as the December Sindh Club Winter Ball, the MALC new-year fundraiser or the OGS annual in the summer, not to mention the weekly Fez Night at Sindh Club, is a must. Many pay approximately 15,000 rupees for charity ball tickets priced originally at 10,000. Waiting lists run to the hundreds. For those not considered part of the A-list, it is a perfect way into the closely guarded world of the elites. In the words of a newly married couple from Lahore, “We don’t want to be social outcasts.” And be it fashion shows or foreign music, chocolate from Sweden or cheese from Switzerland, orchids from Thailand or candles from England, scores of event managers compete to offer their own distinctive, exclusive services.

Ghouse Akbar, owner of the first McDonalds to open in Pakistan, and President of Nike and the Princeton Review, agrees that foreign brands are a great investment for Pakistani businessmen. “I want to bring in the right brands, so that people can enjoy them at an affordable price, just like foreigners can,” he says. “Why should we be deprived of a particular good just because we are in Pakistan?” According to Ghouse, Nike Pakistan imports one million dollars worth of inventory (and exports 30 million dollars), speaking volumes for its demand. Dismissing assertions that western goods impose an alien culture on Pakistani society, and displace indigenous culture, he states, “It is not my intention to bring in the culture, just the product.”

But can the two really be divorced? Not according to Zahir Rahimtoola, CEO of Labels. “There has been an increase in women buying our clothes, as more and more are now shifting to western trends,” he admits. With the opening of foreign franchises like McDonalds, Pizza Hut and KFC, one doesn’t want to step into such places looking like a desi!” He claims an average of 200 customers a day, with a 60 per cent buying rate. And encouraged by the profits to be made, Zahir has gone on to franchise Levis and Dockers, opening stores in the trendy Park Towers and The Forum. Says Deepak Perwani, designer of his own label, “Fashion is all about the fantasy.” Favouring the sleek minimalist look, Deepak’s philosophy is simple: more is less. Fresh from a trip to China, he says, “Even in the rural Chinese backwaters, girls were dressed in the latest western fashions,” he says. “I hope I can see the same happening in Pakistan during my lifetime.”

Says Dr Musa, “If you don’t have religious foundations, a code or a sense of yourself, you have to put these fake clothes on metaphorically. Immersed in elite obsessions like clothes, drugs or particular types of music, today’s youth seek an intangible fulfilment. Unconcerned about those on the periphery, they choose to live in a precarious bubble, divorced from the reality that surrounds them. And so they party on…until the bubble bursts.

bloggers note: this is who we are as pakistanis and we wonder whats the actual disparity ?? atleast at the most fundamental level why arent we like any other developing country? a country with 5 diffrent education systems will always have dual political religious visisons or mulitple standards every where in rest of its society!!

creating joy for self

Enjoyment appears at the boundary between boredom and anxiety, when the challenges are just balanced with the person’s capacity to act.”

Joy mantras that are most natural to our beings

•  Too much television is ‘Tele-visham’ — (Tele poison). Too much negative stimulation, disturbs a mind space naturally ready for imagination, and fantasy. Even people and events distracts you from focusing on your own mindspace, your home, and your backyard.

• Regular exercise schedule. Physical fitness is the most important thing in life.

•  Service to others, music, prayer — forms of meditation — make the blood flow with serotonins — the happiness chemical.

•  Listen to your body. If you are tired, rest. If you are hungry, eat. If you are lonely, communicate, ask for a hug. If you are angry, deal with your anger constructively.

To create a joy ful flow experience: is to be internally motivated, i.e. doing the activity mainly for its own sake, a task would stretch your skills almost to the limits, but that not makes you too anxious, with a clear short-term objective,and in which you get get immediate feedback on how is it turning out.

an hour can pass in the blink of an eye, you feel what you are doing is important,you’re not self-conscious, action and awareness merges,you feel in full control, and the experience is intrinsically rewarding. being in a state of flow is a beautiful thing.

Hanging by the water

Why we measure happiness by how long the experience lasts. Quality matters.  A few breathtaking minutes of inspiration here and there can make a big difference in what we get out of life.

Slinkachu – UK miniature street artist

It usually takes us much longer to change our moods than we’d like it to take. Here are ten things you can do in ten minutes or less that will have a positive emotional effect on you and those you love.

1.    Watch “The Last Lecture” by Randy Pausch. See it online at This is a deeply moving segment that may be the best ten minutes you’ve ever invested in front of a computer.

2.    Spend a little while watching the sunset with your mate. Nothing extra is necessary. Just sit and take in the natural beauty of the sky and appreciate being able to share it with the one you love.

3.    Sit quietly by yourself. It doesn’t really matter where or when. Just let your feelings bubble up and then experience the thoughts flowing out of your mind. Clearing your head and heart will give you extra energy to get through the rest of the day.

4.    Write a thank you note to your mate. When was the last time you thanked your partner for just being who he or she is and being with you? Doing this in writing will give your partner something to cherish for the rest of his or her life.

5.    Take out your oldest family photo album and look through it. The experience will fill you with fond memories and perhaps make you a bit wistful for days gone by.

6.    Play with a child. Most kids have short attention spans; ten minutes of quality time from a loving adult can make their day. It will also help you stay in touch with the child inside of you.

7.    Visualize or imagine a positive outcome for any issue. Medical doctors recommend visualization to patients with chronic and potentially fatal illnesses. If it can help them, it can do the same for you.

8.    Go to bed with the one you love ten minutes earlier than usual. Then spend that time just holding each other. Let the feeling of warmth from your mate move through you.

9.    Hang out by some water. Studies show that hospital patients who can see a natural body of water from their beds get better at a 30 percent faster rate. If you’re not near the coast or a lake, try taking a bath. Doing so is also healing.

10.  Get your body moving. Shake, twist, and jump around. Let yourself feel the joy of moving to your favorite music, or just the sounds in your head. Run, walk, and bike to your hearts content. You will live longer and love it more.

10 Life-Enhancing Things You Can Do in Ten Minutes or Less: By Barton Goldsmith, Ph.D. Created Apr 17 2010 – 9:48am

the broker of Hope has sold me for nothing

Alexa meade
The Moving Finger writes; and, having writ,
Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit,
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it.

But helpless pieces in the game He plays,
Upon this chequer-board of Nights and Days,
He hither and thither moves, and checks … and slays,
Then one by one, back in the Closet lays.

And, as the Cock crew, those who stood before
The Tavern shouted – “Open then the Door!
You know how little time we have to stay,
And once departed, may return no more.”

A Book of Verses underneath the Bough,
A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread–and Thou,
Beside me singing in the Wilderness,
And oh, Wilderness is Paradise enow.

If chance supplied a loaf of white bread,
Two casks of wine and a leg of mutton,
In the corner of a garden with a tulip-cheeked girl,
There’d be enjoyment no Sultan could outdo.

Myself when young did eagerly frequent
Doctor and Saint, and heard great Argument
About it and about: but evermore
Came out of the same Door as in I went.

With them the Seed of Wisdom did I sow,
And with my own hand labour’d it to grow:
And this was all the Harvest that I reap’d –
“I came like Water, and like Wind I go.”

Into this Universe, and why not knowing,
Nor whence, like Water willy-nilly flowing:
And out of it, as Wind along the Waste,
I know not whither, willy-nilly blowing.

And that inverted Bowl we call The Sky,
Whereunder crawling coop’t we live and die,
Lift not thy hands to It for help – for It
Rolls impotently on as Thou or I.

people think shes complicated NOT at all! Pakistan’s complicated bloggers

As a child she was not very fond of toys or dolls, but preferred outdoor activities. when not reading she climbed trees, plucked fruit,mainly Mulberries, played ball hop-scotch. On rainy days she would play in the rain,but when forced to stay indoors she would play games involving mental activity write or draw. Seeing her love for reading, she got books containing short stories of children characters, fantasy or on religious topics. One of her idiosyncracies was her aversion to wearing shoes. She would take off her chappals at all the times or when driving and would be invariably be loosing them.


“When a woman is the sum total of her headscarf and hymen – that is, what’s on her head and what is between her legs – then nakedness and sex become weapons of political resistance.”

| Mona Eltahawy.

The Sun represents vitality, a sense of individuality and outward-shining creative energy.

S in V

It is rare to find the stereotypical nitpicky, exacting, “clean freak” in modern-day Virgos. Although the sign of Virgo has evolved with the times, there are some unmistakable traits that remain. Virgo people are generally respectable, hard-working individuals who have a love of knowledge and know-how.

Virgo’s symbol, the Virgin, shows itself in the lives of Virgos through a love of all that is “natural” and a certain purity of spirit that keeps Virgos self-sufficient and self-contained, at least on the surface. Virgos are sensitive to their surroundings, and they tend to embarrass easily. They are generally reticent when faced with anything or anyone new. However, once they feel comfortable, they can talk up a storm. Many Virgo Suns are not too comfortable in the limelight. These types are just fine living in the background, as long as they feel useful and appreciated. Solar Virgos have a strong sense of responsibility. Even when they’ve convinced themselves to be irresponsible about something or the other, they worry about it.

Not all Virgos are workaholics. However, when Solar Virgos are not involved in some kind of project, there is generally a vague feeling of discontent. Even when their lives are filled up with work, they are restless and somewhat nervous creatures. The fear of under-performing is often strong. Virgos want to do things well. Some are exacting and thorough, and those Virgos who have convinced themselves to do a less-than-perfect job will generally feel incomplete. There’s an odd combination of the intellectual and the practical in Virgo that is sometimes mistaken for coolness. In fact, Virgos are often self-effacing and shy. They’ll brush off your compliments quickly and, sometimes, critically; but don’t let that fool you. They need your respect and appreciation. In fact, the happiest Virgos are the ones who feel appreciated and useful. Add plenty of worthwhile projects to keep them busy, and Virgos can be some of the sweetest, kindest people around.

Keywords: analytical, intelligent, reserved, critical, helpful, conscientious.

Virgo ascendant Scorpio

Sun in XI

You are a humanitarian who aims to treat everyone as equals. You seek to be unique and original, and you do your best to avoid bias and prejudice. Social status is less important to you than belonging to a group of diverse personalities. Your identity, in fact, is somehow linked to a larger unit than yourself. You have high hopes and goals, and tend to look at life in terms of opportunities. You have magnetic appeal, as people sense your broad tolerance and openness. The friendships you establish are crucial to your development. If you identify too much with your friendships and your friendliness, you may become too impersonal and alienate those who would like to get close to you. Successful career thanks to support of patrons, friends or relations. You are a leader in groups and people look up to you.

The Moon represents the emotional responses, unconscious pre-destination, and the self-image.

Moon in Aries

Nothing quite happens soon enough with this position of the Moon. There is an inherent impatience with getting what they want. Life is a series of emergencies for Lunar Ariens. They live in the moment and have a hard time waiting for things to happen. Whims of the moment take absolute precedence in their lives. This is a fiery position of the moon. Even if the Sun or rising sign is more low-key, Moon in Aries people possess inner passion and fire. Emotional issues take precedence–there is simply no pussy-footing around when it comes to dealing with the feelings. And, dealing with new sentiments and needs stirs up a huge desire for activity. Moon in Aries has a need for acting out their needs, with no time to waste. It is hard for them to see the long-term, or to wait for things to happen. Instant gratification rules!

Oddly enough, this is a very defensive position of the Moon. These natives take things very personally, and they deal with problems by facing them right away so that they can then get on with other things. Their flare-ups generally end almost as quickly as they started. Lunar Ariens have an unmistakable independent streak. They put themselves right out there in the world, and make an impression in whatever they do. Their self-confidence is actually variable. Although a strong personality is projected, Moon in Aries people go through plenty of ups and downs. Their moodiness is not like Cancer or Pisces moodiness–they don’t withdraw into themselves or escape the world when they’re down. Instead, they are temperamental. Some might say that people with Moon in Aries actually enjoy trouble and confrontations. Indeed, this position is easily bored with environments that are too peaceful. Their homes–especially their childhood homes–are often battlegrounds. They rule the roost, or at least want to, and are not the most peaceful of folk to live with!

Moon in Aries men and women are prone to have plenty of crushes and other short-lived yet intense desires. “Needs” and “wants” are indistinguishable to Lunar Ariens at any given time. In their minds, what they want is so powerful that it becomes an absolute need. In young adulthood, they can be dangerous with a credit card. Whoever offered the advice to freeze your credit card in a container of water, and then let the block of ice thaw before using the card, unwittingly had people with Moon in Aries in mind. The whole idea was to see if the shopping whim of the moment would pass by the time the card was ready to use. Still, with this scenario, I wouldn’t be surprised to see Moon in Aries hacking away at the ice. That is, if Aries actually takes the advice in the first place!

Others will appreciate that people with Moon in Aries rarely sulk or play any drawn-out games of manipulation. You can pretty much know what they want at any given time. They are generally ruled by their own emotional needs, and they’re not always as concerned about others’ needs during these “emergencies”. Somehow, they have people around them scrambling to help them solve their problems. There’s an aura of childlike innocence around Lunar Ariens, even when they’re getting their way again, that can be charming indeed!

Moon in VI

Is not always a natural leader, but succeeds in being the right-hand of an important person. In most cases, she is an employee, worker etc. usually by choice. She likes the country, respects Nature and likes animals.

You have an emotional need to be useful, to work productively, to be organized and on top of things, and to lead a healthy life. If these matters are chaotic in your life, it’s a symptom of emotional unrest. You need a lot of variety on the job–to be stimulated and engaged in order to feel happy. Some of you might seem to change jobs often, forever in search of the “perfect fit” job. Acceptance that any job requires some level of routine is hard for you. You are very sensitive, and especially aware of minor health annoyances or body aches and pains. Some of you have hypochondriac symptoms. Some attempt to get out of things they don’t want to do by emphasizing health problems or even exaggerate illnesses in order to gain sympathy. At your best, however, you’re a person who always helps out and shows your affection for others in practical ways in order to help them solve problems and improve their lives.

-115 Opposition Moon – Uranus

She has a feverish, non-constructive restlessness. She is too susceptible. Her life is full of change. She is irritable and stubborn at times due to an inner restlessness that is hard to satisfy. She has difficulty concentrating on a job. Nervous strain. Her friendships are like her professional and love life – sometimes unstable. There is a strong need for closeness, but when people get too close, she gets cagey, as she values personal freedom just as much.

-136 Opposition Moon – Ascendant

She is unhappily influenced by the family. She is probably loved insufficiently by her parents, but looks for more love especially from her mother. She is susceptible, has superficial sensitivity and is sometimes irascible.

-37 Square Moon – Midheaven

She has an irresolute nature, with sudden changes of humor. She is unstable and does not follow through on her own objectives. This instability shows itself not only in professional life but also in love life and friendships.

Mercury represents communication, Cartesian and logical spirit.

Mercury in Libra

Usually quite diplomatic and tactful, she evaluates and weighs things up endlessly, often to the point of indecisiveness. Of good judgment, she expresses herself clearly. Before coming to an opinion on a subject, she listens to the opinions offered by various people and can compare them before making up her own mind. Mental affinity in her relationships is paramount. She is good at compromising and always tries to put herself in others’ shoes. Some mental laziness.

Mercury in XII

She has difficulty expressing herself, especially when young. Does not talk much, she does not speak for the sake of it. She works in remote and quiet places. She is discrete and philosophical.

You are not very quick to speak or communicate, especially in childhood, as you need to develop trust in your own abilities to express yourself. You make an excellent confidante–you are very discreet and secrets go into the vault. You might make matters too complex by overanalyzing motives or hunches, and then have problems acting on your intuition as a result. You are very attracted to symbols, sentiment, imagery, and paradoxes. You prefer not to focus on facts and learn best when ideas are presented visually, emotionally, or imaginatively. Learning to communicate clearly is a challenge for you, but one that might put an end to feelings of guilt, of being misunderstood, and to attracting unpleasant situations or duplicitous people into your experience.

399 Conjunction Mercury – Venus

She looks on the bright side of life: she is gay, agreeable, optimistic, sociable. She likes to speak and write, and does both with charm and artistry. Her intellectual pleasures are influenced by her feelings. She is amorous and sensual. She likes beauty, the Arts but also travelling.

197 Conjunction Mercury – Mars

She likes to discuss, likes polemic. She has good judgment and is determined. She is a worker and has lots of energy. She has a lively intelligence and goes to the heart of things. She is enthusiastic, incisive, and energetic in thought and speech.

21 Trine Mercury – Jupiter

She is intelligent, has big ideas: she is tolerant and has a strong sense of justice. She has good judgement, good sense and has her feet on the ground. She has the “gift of the gab”, and likes to speak, she also likes literature. She is erudite and will normally be successful socially.

235 Conjunction Mercury – Pluto

She has a great sense of observation and quickly grasps the situation. She is crafty, subtle and critical.

9 Sextile Mercury – Midheaven

She likes to have her own ideas about things, to form an opinion and think over the problems it poses. She is an intellectual.

Venus represents an interest for emotions and values, exchange and sharing with others.

Venus in Libra

Venus in Libra people will try to impress you with their kindness, evenhandedness, and willingness to make your relationship work. They have a polished manner in love, which sometimes makes them appear insincere or superficial. They are gentle lovers who hate to be offended. They are threatened by bad manners and direct or abrasive expression of feelings. They not only prefer to choose the middle road, they seek the middle ground in their relationships. You can expect to be treated fairly, and you may be turned on by Venus in Libra’s willingness to concede and adjust their lives to fully accommodate you. Venus in Libra men and women have idealized images of their relationships, even to the point where the relationship becomes bigger than life, taking on a life of its own. They can become quietly resentful if they feel they are being taken advantage of — and they make it easy for more aggressive types to bully them around.

Pleasing Venus in Libra involves treating them kindly and fairly. They love to share everything with you, so let them. Foreplay for them can be mental — they love to communicate with you about the relationship. Sharing turns them on, and tactless or uncouth behavior is a turn-off. Although they seem to put up with a lot, be fair with them. Over time, imbalance in their relationship is sure to make them unhappy, and when it comes to this, they may try to even the score in subtle, roundabout ways. Don’t let it come to that, and you will be rewarded with a lover who puts themselves in your shoes and treats you exactly how they would like to be treated.

Venus in XII

She is devoted to sick or impoverished people. Can be in the medical or social professions. She likes animals, tranquility, peace and solitude. She may have secret love affairs.

You are big on romance and you tend to live and breathe your partner once you’re hooked. Not the best at defining your boundaries — where your needs and your partner’s needs separate — you can get hurt in love rather easily. You can also feel used quite readily. You are attracted to people from all walks of life, finding a partner who has an unusual background or quirky personality most attractive. Partners who mistake your compassion for weakness can take advantage of you. Being openly affectionate and trusting often doesn’t seem safe to you. You may feel your love won’t be appreciated or reciprocated. You may get involved in secret love affairs or fall in love with a person who is quite unavailable to you at different points in your life. Love and sacrifice often seem to go hand in hand for you – having to give something up to be with the one you love, or having to relinquish some person or some aspect of an important love relationship. You value a certain amount of self-sacrifice and a giving attitude in a partner, as you embody these traits. You can be quite mysterious to others, even if you don’t mean to be, because your romantic needs are kept hidden. Although you are quite naturally drawn to relationships that are unusual, secret, challenging, and unequal, do take the time to examine why this may be the case. Be certain that you are not, in some way, punishing yourself because you don’t feel worthy of an equal and public relationship. Because Venus represents attraction, and the twelfth house is associated with the feet, your feet may be especially attractive and/or erogenous zones!

514 Conjunction Venus – Mars

She is amorous, not a peaceful and calm lover but a passionate one with a strong temperament. She is demonstrative in love, and likes healthy pleasures. She enjoys life to the full.

185 Sextile Venus – Saturn

She has a good grasp of reality and of duty. She is thrifty, reserved and does not show off. She likes truth and justice. In love, her sentiments are sincere and deep, she never plays false. She is, of course, faithful in love and friendship. She can love a much older person and appreciates her intelligence and good sense.

167 Sextile Venus – Neptune

Her professional life is unstable. She has a taste for the Arts, is a dreamer, is easily influenced and romantic. She is emotional and very sensitive.

Romantic, creative, gentle, and adaptable, you naturally express the finer qualities of mysterious and dreamy Neptune in your love relationships. Your imagination is rich and your fantasy world well-developed. You are turned off by rudeness and crudeness, and are drawn to beauty in its many forms. You are very giving and generous, but may be a little on the submissive side, or sometimes downright lazy, failing to take the initiative when situations call for it.

380 Conjunction Venus – Pluto

Her emotional and sex life is powerful and rich. She lives out truly passionate love affairs.

Mars represents the desire for action and physical energy.

Mars in Libra

Mars in Libra natives often reflect about things before they act. Decisiveness is not their strong point, but they do, eventually, get things done. Many people with this position procrastinate, generally because they feel the need to weigh all of the alternatives before taking action.

Life isn’t always fair, as Mars in Scorpio would say, but Mars in Libra will seldom accept this notion. These natives can easily get caught up in defending themselves and others. Although their overall goal is to live peacefully, they stir others up with their desire to balance everything. Still, they always play innocent when they are challenged, and can generally charm the birds out of the trees to win your favor. Passive-aggressiveness is practically the hallmark of this position. They don’t want to look like they are ever being mean or unfair, but aggression has to go somewhere! Too often, this results in sneaky behavior and subterfuge. On the other hand, some Mars in Libra people turn the Mars energy into action, and they fight for Libran justice and fairness in the world. On the up side, Mars in Libra people are adept at predicting when problems and discord will occur well in advance. They know how to compromise and are excellent at conflict management.

Mars in XII

All her energy is put into the work life. She loves research. She could be a lab worker, doctor, police officer, teacher specializing in hospital, prison or hospice work..

93 Sextile Mars – Saturn

She is energetic and determined. She has strength and resistance, ability and patience: she is tough, and sometimes insensitive, and puts all her energy and talents into overcoming all the obstacles to her success. She is obstinate, calculating, does not take on anything without having thought of all the possible consequences, she can take all the time in the world and never loses patience to achieve her objectives. She is not particularly popular in her circle, but is feared and respected.

85 Sextile Mars – Neptune

Her feelings are dominated by wisdom and geared towards the ideal. She likes water, sea voyages. She likes odd people.

167 Conjunction Mars – Pluto

She is ambitious, has a great capacity for work, has self-confidence and goes to the end of her plans.

Jupiter represents expansion and grace.

Jupiter in Gemini

She attracts the most good fortune when she uses her wit and ingeniousness, is versatile, sociable, curious, and puts others at ease with friendliness and sincere curiosity. Values the intellect and sees opportunities to grow and succeed through intellectual, verbal, and written channels. Believes that intelligence and knowledge is the key to solving problems.

Jupiter in VII

She makes a good marriage, with a useful partner who helps to bring success if only by his advice. She never goes outside the bounds of legality.

28 Sextile Jupiter – Midheaven

She is a high liver, likes to have fun but knows what she wants and does whatever necessary to get it. She wants to – and does – succeed socially. After a hard day’s work, a good well-lubricated meal in the company of friends is just the ticket.

Saturn represents contraction and effort.

Saturn in Leo

In a position of authority, she likes responsibilities and assumes them. She receives favours from patrons, who recognize her merits or similarly receives honors in return for well-accomplished tasks.

Weaknesses: abuse of power, little feeling in the workplace.

Saturn in X

Her up-bringing is rigorous, severe. Her professional life is all-important. She is serious, methodical, persevering. She wants to have power, to succeed and has all the necessary qualities to achieve this objective, by taking one step at a time.

38 Trine Saturn – Neptune

Her plans are realized in a methodical fashion, she works hard to achieve success.

47 Sextile Saturn – Pluto

She perseveres, achieves her projects through hard work.

16 Conjunction Saturn – Midheaven

She is ambitious, but in a calculated, well-balanced way. She perseveres, is serious, orderly. She climbs the ladder slowly but surely: if need be, she is willing to change her ideas. She is wise and experienced.

Uranus represents individual liberty, egoistic liberty.

Uranus in Scorpio

Intelligent and subtle. Adores research, inquiry, investigation. Very sensual.

Uranus in I

She is above all independent and original. Sometimes blunt and irritable. Never lets herself be influenced. She does not tolerate any sort of setback. She is ready for adventure, even though it’s risky.

91 Conjunction Uranus – Ascendant

She is always changing, is unstable. She is ready to innovate, to change everything. She is inventive.

-24 Square Uranus – Midheaven

She cannot carry through her plans, schemes to the end. These are changeable. She lacks forethought, attention. She throws herself into things, more than reacts to them.

Neptune represents transcendental liberty, non-egoistic liberty.

Neptune in Sagittarius

Likes long voyages, things foreign, water.

Neptune in II

She may prefer not to attach too much value to money, but if this is overdone, there can be quite a few problems in life concerning money and ownership. She might make money through artistic pursuits, but must avoid the potential pitfalls of putting too much faith in ideas that don’t have enough grounding in reality. Financial advice is important to obtain.

52 Sextile Neptune – Pluto

0 Trine Neptune – Midheaven

Her plans lack realism and are therefore often unattainable.

Pluto represents transformations, mutations and elimination.

Pluto in Libra

Looks for new ways to relate to others.

House I is the area of self identity. The ascendant is a symbol of how one acts in life. It is the image of the personality as seen by others, and the attitude that one has towards life.

Virgo ascendant Scorpio

Ascendant in Scorpio

Scorpio Ascendant people have a lot of presence. There is something about them that tells the world that they are not to be pushed around. Their manner commands respect, and in some cases, fear. Scorpio rising people can be quiet or loud, but they always seem powerful and determined. You either love or hate Scorpio rising people– they are rarely people who go through life unnoticed. In fact, some of them are confused when faced with the fact that they get such strong reactions from others. They seem to look right through people, seeing through superficiality. This can be quite intimidating to some, and intriguing to others. Scorpio rising people, in their dealings with others, look for answers by reading between the lines. Surface details are discarded when they are getting a feel for people and situations around them.

Scorpio rising people value their privacy so much, it can border on paranoia. They have a strong need to control their environment and are experts at strategy. Rarely people who will blow their chances with impatience, they plan out their moves carefully and deliberately, relying on their awesome ability to feel out others and situations. Scorpio rising natives are drawn to down-to-earth, natural partners. Reliability in their partner is very important. They generally look for complete commitment and have little patience with flighty partners.

House II is the area of material security and values. It rules money and personal finances, sense of self-worth and basic values, personal possessions.

House II in Sagittarius

Financial success may come through an import/export company dealing regularly with foreign countries. She may have a laissez-faire attitude towards money. May take risks financially, as making and spending money is seen as an adventure.

House III is the area of social and intellectual learning.

House III in Capricorn

Nothing is left to chance, everything is calculated, dissected slowly and methodically, twice rather than once, in peace and quiet by herself. She is introverted, and doesn’t speak about her plans until they are underway.

House IV is the area of home, family, roots, and deep emotions/sense of self-worth.

House IV in Aquarius

She will leave the family home reasonably young. Likes liberty, wants a life that is out-of-the-ordinary, and certainly one that does not correspond with mum and dad’s.

House V is the area of creative self-expression, romance, entertainment, children, and gambling.

House V in Pisces

With lofty feelings, she is full of tenderness, sentimentality. Things do not always go her way. A meeting with a person who is either not free, too young or from a different family or social background means that living together will be done in the utmost secrecy while waiting for the chance to legalize the situation quietly, without any trouble. This state of affairs will make her melancholy. A lovely little family will result from this union.

House VI is the area of learning by material transaction.

House VI in Aries

Ability to command, knows how to take up her responsibilities at work. Weak point: headaches, fevers.

House VII is the area of one-to-one relationships such as marriage and partnership, and of social and intellectual action.

House VII in Taurus

Marries for love but also well financially. A peaceful union even if exchange of ideas isn’t always smooth.

House VIII is the area of emotional security and of security of the soul.

House VIII in Gemini

If she is a writer, a painter or involved in another of the Arts, and if fame doesn’t come when living, then it will come posthumously. Small inheritance from near relations. Take care of the lungs – if a smoker, then it is advisable to stop.

House IX is the area of learning that shapes the identity.

House IX in Cancer

Fertile imagination. She is easily influenced. Likes travel, especially cruises.

House X is the area of material action. The Mid-heaven represents the work one will do in his life, the place one will take in the world of society. It becomes more important as one grows older

House X in Leo

All the leadership qualities are there: authority, sense of organization, initiative, intelligence, but also thanks to outside help. She is a fighter.

House XI is the area of search for social and intellectual security.

House XI in Virgo

Friends must resemble her, anyone having different ideas or ways of doing things cannot be friends. Discussing ideas is not her cup of tea. Her knowledge is the result of study but also of the down-to-earth nature that characterizes her.

House XII is the area of education and of emotion.

We shall (Always) compose a crises

aand i thought to my self how rare must this be? for him to be relaxed enough to smile like that? did he know what he was fighting for? did he really believe in us?  US the ungrateful and the greedy that have let him down?

:(. i have all the love for you. Baba. i m trying to show it by staying back educating and writing.

A fractured fragmented mentality. politics and collective psychology. is what the result of todays conversation with a few nationalistic got me writing. as always these so called radicals, fake or real were looking to blame someone and calling separatism from center as the only solution. which in Pakistan’s case a big LOL. Few questions emerged in my mind.

Education is the big problem,

perspective (whats the angle of the conversation, equality or religious or ethnic bent)

dissociation from tribal/ narrow /do or die thinking thinking ( national/ethnic  pride is an ok thing but at what cost?)

I think Pakistani on twitter: separatists and politicians are mentally disturbed. 🙂

 Disclaimer: no human being is really “sane” . Pakistanis collectively suffer from Borderline provincial disorder BPD

The primary features of a national insanity are myopic establishments,  unstable weak politicakl governments, affective socio/economic distress,  marked uneducatedness in judging , representing a tortured unstable national individual self-image.

Borderline provincial disorder or a nationally unstable personality disorder,  is marked by a prolonged economic disturbance of provincial functions, characterized by unusual variability in relationship with a badly governing federal govt and due to lack of education, tribal background in smaller provinces, a depth of thinking and perspective. These economic/developmental disturbances may secondarily affect cognition and interpersonal trust relations between all provinces/territories. Taken advantage of by external  elements.

The political disorders in this scenario typically involve unusual degree of instability in thought and action,  encouragement of black-and-white (do or die) (take or snatch) thinking, or splitting opinions on personality/morality/religious/ethnic  grounds as in case of democracy.

Between idealization and devaluation episodes of national and local leaders and chaotic and unstable public private sector partnership in all walks of life,

bitter issues with national/ethinc -image, identity, and behavior; as well as a disturbance in the society’s sense of freedom, choice and independence of thought and action of all on the basis of equality.

In extreme cases, this disturbance in the sense of self can lead to periods of dissociation from center ideology of feeral government  resulting in multiple separatist movements.

Splitting opinions along with a democratic behavior solely focused on and  always switching between idealizing and demonizing leaders.  Army, and civilian governments.

This, combined with economic/civil/internal and external disturbances, civil wars undermines relationships collectively between provinces and center. Resulting in a:


In 2005 Pakistan wasnt a failed state it is now.

A failed state is a state perceived as having failed at some of the basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government. In order to make this definition more precise, the following attributes, proposed by the Fund for Peace, are often used to characterize a failed state:

  • loss of control of its territory, or of the monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force therein,
  • erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions,
  • an inability to provide public services, and
  • an inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community.